Etiology & Pathophysiology Essential hypertension is characterized by chronic elevation of blood pressure where the systolic blood pressure is above 140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg. The consequences of hypertension, such as myocardial infarction, strokes, and heart failure, may well be the leading global cause of death in the near future. Multiple physiological systems are at play in blood pressure (BP) regulation… systems such as the cardiac -, renal -, neural -, endocrine -, and endothelial systems. But… and thank God… the physiology of the body is very forgiving and total recovery is always possible with God’s botanical resources. And I repeat… with GOD’S resources . Cardiac System: An increase in cardiac output (CO), coupled with an increase in total peripheral vascular resistance , are two components leading to hypertension. Increased cardiac output is primarily linked to left-ventricular pump function. This pump function depends upon factors like preload (venous return or left ventricular end diastolic volume), the contractility of the ventricular muscle, and the afterload (ascending aortic input impedance). Cardiac impedance is the measurement of the mechanical activation of the heart. There is a complex relation between unsteady flow and pressure throughout the cardiac cycle. Blood pressure depends on the interplay between the heart and blood vessels. Aortic input impedance is a major determining factor in pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement and thickening of the wall of the ventricle)… the left ventricle being the heart’s main pumping chamber. Abnormalities in arterial–ventricular interaction is critically important when addressing hypertension. Renal System: Adequate arterial pressure is essential for the delivery of blood to the capillary bed (perfusion) of all tissues to provide enough oxygenation and nutrition to the brain and other critical organs. In spite of micro-circulatory beds being capable to adjust vascular resistance to auto-regulate blood flow, systemic arterial pressure is maintained at levels greater than required for vital tissue perfusion under normal circumstances. However these powerful physiologic control mechanisms may be inappropriately activated in certain circumstances leading to hypertension and cardiovascular injury. Not only is the kidney victim to hypertension-related injury, but it can also be the villain in its hypertensinogenic effect in the process. The kidneys are critical role players in the long-term control of arterial pressure by regulating sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal part in the regulation of hypertension and progressive renal injury. Increased RAS activity is a major determinant for numerous pathologic conditions as angiotensin II increases aldosterone and blood pressure and contributes to the development of organ damage through direct effects on cardiac, vascular, and renal tissues. Neural System: A dysfunctional autonomic nervous system plays a significant role in the chronic elevation of arterial pressure, with emphasis on the abnormal activation of the sympathetic nerves… both at rest and in response to environmental stimuli alike. Adrenergic- and vagal abnormalities are amplifiers of the high blood pressure state. Endocrine System: Endocrine hypertension involves disorders of the adrenal glands, coupled with primary aldosteronism . In primary aldosteronism, your adrenal glands produce too much of the aldosterone steroid hormone, with potassium depletion and excess sodium as a result… subsequently leading to water retention and edema. Inflammation is another factor. Endothelial System: A dysfunctional endothelium system inhibits relaxation of vascular smooth muscles and negatively affects vasomotor tone is therefore an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Increased oxidative stress through ROS (reactive oxygen species) represents a major mechanism leading to reduced vascular availability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase are major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypertension. The most studied actions of NO are in the cardiovascular system, where it is continuously produced by the endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is linked to the macrovascular complications of hypertension, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary microvascular dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness. Loss of the anti-atherogenic and vasculo-protective effects of endothelium-derived NO is a result of endothelial dysfunction.
PATHOLOGICAL TARGETS Cardiovascular System: Increased cardiac output, coupled with an increase in total peripheral vascular resistance. Renal System: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) Neural System: Increased sympatho-adrenal activity and Vagal nerve dysfunction. Anxiety Endocrine System: Aldosterone overload and edema Inflammation Endothelial System: Aortic stiffness and atherosclerosis, due to Endothelial dysfunction and impaired fibrinolysis.
COUNTERACTING STRATEGIES Cardiovascular System: Nitric oxide (NO) stimulation through God’s natural NOS (nitric oxide synthase enzyme) antagonists. Acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation through God’s natural Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) antagonists. Renal System: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by means of God’s natural angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Neural System: God’s natural ß-adrenergic receptor blockers. Parasympathetic stimulation through God’s natural M2-selective muscarinic receptor agonists. Anti-anxiety activity by means of God’s natural anxiolytic agents. Endocrine System: Potassium-sparing diuretic action through aldosterone inhibition by way of God’s natural mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Anti-edema and anti-inflammatory activity by means of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. Endothelial System: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by means of God’s natural angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased oxidative stress.
DISCLAIMER This information published through “God’s Garden Gifts” website is provided for informational purposes only and any action on your part in response to the information provided on this website is at the reader's own discretion. “God’s Garden Gifts” makes no representations or warranties with respect to any information shared on this website regarding diagnosis, treatment, action, or application of any kind. Neither “God’s Garden Gifts”, nor any associated person, is liable for any direct or indirect claim, loss or damage resulting from use of this website.
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GOD’S HEAVENLY CHALLENGE… HYPERTENSION
1 Corinthians 10:13 “No trial has overtaken you that is not faced by others. And God is faithful: He will not let you be tried beyond what you are able to bear, but with the trial will also provide a way out so that you may be able to endure it. “ – NET Bible
GOD’S HEAVENLY GARDEN GRACE “WAY OUT”… Divine molecules locked up within his global garden…molecules such as…
… and many, many, many more
Back to Index Back to Index
Etiology & Pathophysiology Essential hypertension is characterized by chronic elevation of blood pressure where the systolic blood pressure is above 140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg. The consequences of hypertension, such as myocardial infarction, strokes, and heart failure, may well be the leading global cause of death in the near future. Multiple physiological systems are at play in blood pressure (BP) regulation… systems such as the cardiac -, renal -, neural -, endocrine -, and endothelial systems. But… and thank God… the physiology of the body is very forgiving and total recovery is always possible with God’s botanical resources. And I repeat… with GOD’S resources . Cardiac System: An increase in cardiac output (CO), coupled with an increase in total peripheral vascular resistance , are two components leading to hypertension. Increased cardiac output is primarily linked to left-ventricular pump function. This pump function depends upon factors like preload (venous return or left ventricular end diastolic volume), the contractility of the ventricular muscle, and the afterload (ascending aortic input impedance). Cardiac impedance is the measurement of the mechanical activation of the heart. There is a complex relation between unsteady flow and pressure throughout the cardiac cycle. Blood pressure depends on the interplay between the heart and blood vessels. Aortic input impedance is a major determining factor in pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement and thickening of the wall of the ventricle)… the left ventricle being the heart’s main pumping chamber. Abnormalities in arterial–ventricular interaction is critically important when addressing hypertension. Renal System: Adequate arterial pressure is essential for the delivery of blood to the capillary bed (perfusion) of all tissues to provide enough oxygenation and nutrition to the brain and other critical organs. In spite of micro-circulatory beds being capable to adjust vascular resistance to auto-regulate blood flow, systemic arterial pressure is maintained at levels greater than required for vital tissue perfusion under normal circumstances. However these powerful physiologic control mechanisms may be inappropriately activated in certain circumstances leading to hypertension and cardiovascular injury. Not only is the kidney victim to hypertension-related injury, but it can also be the villain in its hypertensinogenic effect in the process. The kidneys are critical role players in the long-term control of arterial pressure by regulating sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal part in the regulation of hypertension and progressive renal injury. Increased RAS activity is a major determinant for numerous pathologic conditions as angiotensin II increases aldosterone and blood pressure and contributes to the development of organ damage through direct effects on cardiac, vascular, and renal tissues. Neural System: A dysfunctional autonomic nervous system plays a significant role in the chronic elevation of arterial pressure, with emphasis on the abnormal activation of the sympathetic nerves… both at rest and in response to environmental stimuli alike. Adrenergic- and vagal abnormalities are amplifiers of the high blood pressure state. Endocrine System: Endocrine hypertension involves disorders of the adrenal glands, coupled with primary aldosteronism . In primary aldosteronism, your adrenal glands produce too much of the aldosterone steroid hormone, with potassium depletion and excess sodium as a result… subsequently leading to water retention and edema. Inflammation is another factor. Endothelial System: A dysfunctional endothelium system inhibits relaxation of vascular smooth muscles and negatively affects vasomotor tone is therefore an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Increased oxidative stress through ROS (reactive oxygen species) represents a major mechanism leading to reduced vascular availability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase are major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypertension. The most studied actions of NO are in the cardiovascular system, where it is continuously produced by the endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is linked to the macrovascular complications of hypertension, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary microvascular dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness. Loss of the anti-atherogenic and vasculo- protective effects of endothelium-derived NO is a result of endothelial dysfunction.
PATHOLOGICAL TARGETS Cardiovascular System: Increased cardiac output, coupled with an increase in total peripheral vascular resistance. Renal System: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) Neural System: Increased sympatho- adrenal activity and Vagal nerve dysfunction. Anxiety Endocrine System: Aldosterone overload and edema Inflammation Endothelial System: Aortic stiffness and atherosclerosis, due to Endothelial dysfunction and impaired fibrinolysis.
COUNTERACTING STRATEGIES Cardiovascular System: Nitric oxide (NO) stimulation through God’s natural NOS (nitric oxide synthase enzyme) antagonists. Acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation through God’s natural Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) antagonists. Renal System: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by means of God’s natural angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Neural System: God’s natural ß-adrenergic receptor blockers. Parasympathetic stimulation through God’s natural M2- selective muscarinic receptor agonists. Anti-anxiety activity by means of God’s natural anxiolytic agents. Endocrine System: Potassium-sparing diuretic action through aldosterone inhibition by way of God’s natural mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Anti-edema and anti- inflammatory activity by means of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. Endothelial System: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by means of God’s natural angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased oxidative stress.
1 Corinthians 10:13 “No trial has overtaken you that is not faced by others. And God is faithful: He will not let you be tried beyond what you are able to bear, but with the trial will also provide a way out so that you may be able to endure it. “ – NET Bible
DISCLAIMER This information published through “God’s Garden Gifts” website is provided for informational purposes only and any action on your part in response to the information provided on this website is at the reader's own discretion. “God’s Garden Gifts” makes no representations or warranties with respect to any information shared on this website regarding diagnosis, treatment, action, or application of any kind. Neither “God’s Garden Gifts”, nor any associated person, is liable for any direct or indirect claim, loss or damage resulting from use of this website.
GOD’S HEAVENLY CHALLENGE… HYPERTENSION
GOD’S HEAVENLY GARDEN GRACE “WAY OUT”… Divine molecules locked up within his global garden…molecules such as…
… and many, many, many more
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